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Research

We always need more research so please if you find papers that are not on our list please send us the link or the doc.

Looking at all the studies (we only have the tip of the iceberg here - there is in excess of 200 scientific studies that show a health problem from mobile phone technology) it looks as if they've proven a health risk over and over and over again.

However the argument the authorities and industry constantly chuck out is "...these studies have not been replicated.. they must be replicated before they can be scientifically accepted..." The implication is always that this has been tried and failed.. this is not true. From what we can gather studies are not replicated because they are not repeated (they are not given funding).

If the Government is serious about protecting our health and putting our children before profit then its time they put ourmoney where their mouth is. We guess that if the NEW research programs turn out a health effect they will be rubbished as not replicated. Lets put our taxes into repeating some of these studies so that we can finally get a true picture of the science

Membrane leakage

All the living cells in our bodies are surrounded by membranes just two molecules thick. Most of these molecules are negatively charged and tend to repel one another. However, they are held together by positive ions (mainly calcium) that fit in between them. The ions' forces of attraction for the negative molecules on either side help to bind them together like mortar holding together the bricks of a wall.

Extremely weak alternating electromagnetic fields, similar to those produced by Wifi, cell phones, cordless phones, and their respective base stations, can act on these calcium ions and dislodge them. This weakens the membrane and makes it more inclined to leak. Very little energy is required since the calcium has to be moved only far enough from the membrane for an alternative ion (usually potassium) to sneak into its place. Since potassium (with only one positive charge) is less good than calcium (which has two charges) at holding the membrane together, it still leaks.

Effects on fertility and cancer

This leakage can have all sorts of unwanted biological effects totally unconnected with their so-called thermal effects. These include allowing foreign materials, such as toxins, carcinogens and allergens to enter cells more easily. Also, the leakage of digestive enzymes through their internal membranes can damage the DNA, leading to the formation of genetically aberrant cells. When this occurs in the sex organs, there is a loss of fertility.  Also, genetically damaged cells in any part of the body can be carcinogenic, although this may not become evident until later on in life when the natural ability of the immune system to deal with them deteriorates.

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS)

All of us are electrosensitive to some degree, but some more so than others. This too seems to be due to membrane leakage. The precise effects depend on which cells leak and the source of the radiation.

When the cells of the skin leak, it causes inflammation. When our sensory cells leak, it can make them send false signals to the brain, so we may get sensations of heat, burning, pins and needles, etc.

If the cells of the inner ear leak, we can get false sensations of sound (tinnitus) or our sense of balance is affected so we feel dizzy and may get all the symptoms of motion sickness.

When neurons in the brain leak, they become more inclined to transmit nerve impulses. This makes the brain hyperactive so that it is more difficult to get to sleep and we may get stress headaches.

Another effect of brain hyperactivity is to speed our reaction times to outside stimulation. However, because some of the nerve impulses are false, it tends also to cloud our thinking; we lose concentration and become more easily distracted.

This may cause attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. In adults, it may be partly responsible for the increased accident rate when people use cell phones while driving. You are four times more likely to have an accident, even with hands-free types.

On the whole, the body sees these effects as harmful and does what it can to minimise them, but the best solution is to avoid the radiation.

Some of the symptoms may be the body's way of telling us to do just that. We become sensitised to the radiation, just as a wound remains tender (i.e. more sensitive to pain) for some time after an injury. This forces us to protect it from further damage while it is healing. In the case of EHS, it may not be easy to escape the radiation and the symptoms continue. The consolation is that these symptoms are not life-threatening; they do go away when you remove the source of radiation and, if there is no further exposure, you may gradually become desensitised.

References and more information (including effects of CFLs) at http://tinyurl.com/55286a and http://tinyurl.com/92r7nc

Andrew Goldsworthy BSc PhD  2009

A simple hypothesis based on studies made over thirty years ago (and regarded as mere scientific curiosities at the time) can explain virtually all of the adverse effects of exposure to non-ionising radiation, with pulsed radiation being the most dangerous. Some of the symptoms are especially apparent in individuals suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Symptoms include skin rashes, sensations of heat, pins and needles, dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances, effects on brain function, DNA damage, loss of fertility, risk of miscarriage, sensitivity to allergens and a greater chance of getting cancer.

The original work showed that electromagnetic radiation that was far too weak to generate significant heat could nevertheless remove calcium ions from cell surfaces. A modern interpretation of these results by Dr Andrew Goldsworthy (an Honorary Lecturer at Imperial College London) explains how the loss of these ions can make cell membranes leak, which in turn gives rise to the symptoms.

Leakage of the contents of skin cells causes inflammation. Leakage of ions in the sensory cells scattered over our body surfaces triggers them to send spurious nerve impulses to the brain causing false sensations (paresthesias). Similar leakages in the sensory cells of the inner ear give false impulses leading to tinnitus, dizziness and symptoms of motion sickness. Leakages in the rods and cones of the eye can cause a partial loss of vision. Leakage in neurons can cause brain hyperactivity leading to sleep disturbances, loss of concentration, ADHD and autism. Leakage in the tight junction barriers that protect all of our body surfaces from the ingress of foreign materials increases the risk of developing allergies and multiple chemical sensitivities. Leakage through internal membranes of cells releases digestive enzymes from lysosomes that then damage DNA, causing a loss of fertility, genetic damage to offspring and an increased risk of developing cancer in later life. Unnecessary exposure to even weak electromagnetic fields should therefore be avoided.

See Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy's presentation here .

I have heard many times from planning inspectors, Government spokespersons and appointed representatives that illnesses from mobile phone transmitters are usually based on anecdotal evidence from selective research, causing anxiety and psychosomatic disorders.  Nothing could be further from the truth.

I suggest that these decision makers read the documents of the NRPB (04), which state..."account should be taken not only of peer reviewed papers, but also of non-peer reviewed and anecdotal evidence".  Appendix H p.101. 

NB:  All studies start from anecdotal evidence - e.g. smoking, alcohol, asbestos, BSE and Aids.

Similarly, according to the WHO, 80% of their data on microwave transmitters show illnesses ranging from microwave sickness to a fourfold increase in cancers.  That is 8 out of 10 research papers - hardly selective.  It is not difficult to find the sponsors of the remaining research papers, which show this communications industry in good light.

My argument, with evidence, follows:

All transmitters emit microwaves.  I will look at general microwave problems first, and then specific problems regarding TETRA.

During the Cold War the Russian Embassy in Moscow microwaved the American Embassy from across the road.  After many changes of staff for cancers to both male and female employees and their children, Professor Goldsmith was invited to investigate this matter.  His report showed that continuous, long-term, low-level microwaves were responsible for those illnesses. 

John Goldsmith holds 11 Professorships and was the WHO representative for Europe.  Interestingly, the power of the microwaves used by the Russians was, in some cases, less than the power used by modern-day transmitters.  [1]

After an extensive study, the US Defence Intelligence Agency warned all of its personnel of the risk from low-level microwaves.  Illnesses range from microwave sickness (flu-like symptoms, depression, suicidal tendencies) to cancers and leukaemia.  [2]

As soon as ordinary microwave transmitters became commonplace, residents started to complain of illnesses and cancer clusters.  Sue Webster took data from just 19 transmitters and found approximately 92 cancers (breast, thyroid, bowel, leukaemia) - the average age of those affected was 39.  [3]

In June 2000 Professor Cherry investigated this issue and presented his evidence to the parliaments of New Zealand, Italy, Austria, Ireland and the EU.  He warned of significant illnesses and death from these microwaves.  [4]

Following a spate of illnesses in their surgeries, a group of German doctors produced the FREIBURGER APPEAL.  It is a warning to decision makers concerning illnesses from low-level microwaves.  To date it has been signed by approximately 40,000 doctors, consultants and scientists. 

At this time:

 

  • 47 cancer clusters were reported around schools  [6]
  • Approx. 138 cancers (brain and breast), miscarriages and teacher illness were reported internationally  [7]
  • 165 die in Osafia  [8]
  • Scientists, like Wolf and Eger, carried out epidemiological studies around transmitters over many years.  Their conclusion was increased illnesses and cancers from the transmitters  [9]
  • Doctor Stoiber wrote an open letter expressing his concern to the Prime Minister  [10]
  • Hutter showed sleeping problems and cognitive performance decline for residents near transmitters  [11]
  • Other scientists, paediatricians and Hass & Colorado State University warn of genetic damage and brain tumours from mobile phones.  I mention this because police officers do not transmit from mountain tops - hey transmit among the population in general (including children)  [12]
  • The Nobel prize winning Irish Doctors Association listed 70 research papers showing the dangers from low-level microwaves.  Santini listed 20 similar studies, the Radiation Research Trust listed 9 studies, Doctor Grahame Blackwell listed 5 similar studies in his report and, finally, 4 international universities completed the Spanish Study, which verified all of these known illnesses.  They recommended a level of radiation 100million times below our maximum level (10million below ICNIRP) [13]
  • Published in the Journal of Australian Environmental Medicine, Hallberg and Johansson studied a country before and after mobile transmitters were introduced.  They found increased cancers (breast, bladder, prostate, lung, colon).  Their conclusion was that this was due to the introduction of FM radio frequencies.  Both these professors also produced a report showing that they believed this radiation also contributed to skin cancer  [14]
  • Two very recent studies have shown that people underneath the transmitter (i.e. transmitter on the roof) suffer neurobehavioural problems (headache, memory changes, tremors, depression, sleep disturbance and neuropsychiatric problems).  I mention this because police staff spend long hours in stations underneath their transmitters.  Also problems can arise where damage occurs to the formation of the foetus  [15]
  • Professor Cherry published a list of dose related illnesses  [16]
  • Doctors Monnet, Ruz and Gautier published mechanisms showing how microwaves cause these illnesses  [17]

Electrical sensitivity has now been recognised by some countries.  Each country claims that above 3% of its population is sensitive to microwaves.  The WHO acknowledges this condition, and the most recent country to announce this is Canada.  The significance of this condition for the police force is that approximately 3% of police officers and those working near transmitters may develop ES.  [18]

80% of the studies on the WHO database show everything from microwave sickness (syndrome) to a 4-fold increase in cancers from low-level microwaves.  I was curious to investigate the remaining 20% which showed no symptoms.  However, this had already been looked at by Swiss scientists, who said "the interpretation of results...should take sponsorship into account".  Michael Meacher, Minister for the Environment 1997-2003, published a report blaming some universities for accepting lucrative contracts in favour of reporting favourable results from scientific research.  In the same month US Congressman, Henry Wasman, published a similar report in Scientific American, stating that science was being corrupted by industry.  [19]

Legal

I must stress that a legal expert can be contacted concerning legal matters;  I am not legally trained.  Such an expert would be consultant, Alan Mayer of Horsey, Lightly, Fynn         (0207 2228844).

Possibly the most misquoted safety level is the ICNIRP certificate.  It actually recommends that care be taken for children and the sick, who may have a lower tolerance for microwaves.  Also, decision makers should review current scientific literature to determine an appropriate reduction factor of power.  In other words, decision makers should look at scientific research and set safety levels below what is known to cause illness.

Legal guidance should be sought concerning PPG8, paras 29 & 30, articles 6 & 8 of the EU Convention on Human Rights and United Nations UN22 standard rules on the equalisation of opportunities for persons.

Appeal APP/U1105/A/04/1126356 where Mr Jarvis refused a transmitter owing to the likely effects on the health of the local population.

Mr Justice Richards in Jodie Phillips v First Secretary of State re: the positioning of a transmitter.  Para. 41 22nd October 2003.

Case Az60b69/Olt 26th April 2001 High Austrian Court of Justice, where Professor Wulf Dietrich Rose proved - for his third case - that radiation represents serious health risks to nearby populations (tumours, genetic problems, deformity of newborns).  [20] 

MP's have tried many times to advise UK Parliament of cancer clusters around transmitters;  in one case there were 11 children under the age of 11 with leukaemia.  This is the 4th cluster to my knowledge.  I wonder whether the Childrens' Act could be used to prevent illnesses to children.  [21]

Specific Problems with Tetra

I think Dr. Goldworthy's research is the most frightening of all.  He predicts that mutant children can be born several generations down the line from genetic damage caused today.  He specifically warns about Tetra.

The International Association of Fire Fighters warn of damage to physical and mental health where transmitters are on station.

The Ecologist published an article showing many illnesses from Tetra.

Again, MP's reported many illnesses in their constituents from Tetra transmitters.

In a private letter to Consultant, Alan Mayer - 6th December 2004 - Professor Olle Johansson told Mr Mayer "Tetra handsets and their pulsing signals could well act as cancer promoters in a matter of weeks or months of exposure".

MP's reported 58% of residents recorded illnesses from nearby Tetra transmitters.

Dr John Walker listed 29 cases of illness - mostly cancers - from a Tetra transmitter.

Mr & Mrs Watts kept a diary - from Feb 2004 to 15th April 2004 - when they had to leave their house, due to continuous illness from the time the nearby Tetra mast was turned on.  [22]

None of this can be a surprise.  Tetra is experimental.  The Police, their families, civilian workers and local residents are human volunteers for this study - whether they like it or not! 

(This is printed in the document of the NRPB VOL.12 No2 2001 p31 Para 5.)  [23]

 As a university qualified experimental physicist, if I were asked to test Tetra, I estimate the experiments would take up to 10 years.  It concerns me that experiments carried out by the Government on Tetra's effect on the brain and heart were programmed for just minutes.  The conclusion was that no significant problems were found  -  I hope that this was not the only experiment carried out on Tetra.  [24]

 A report published by the European Daily Bulletin No. 8445 17th April 2003 may explain why there is pressure to continue with the Tetra rollout, against so many wishes from police officers, councils, MP's, residents and scientists.  This report suggests that Tetra is backed by the USA and must not fail.  [25]

 Conclusion

It is not difficult to find an officer, who has complained about Tetra, to have been moved and/or silenced.  Not to acknowledge this scientific data I call "intentional ignorance" and will only exacerbate and delay the inevitable result.  According to the WHO and research, Tetra can only lead to increased brain damage, illnesses, reduced immune systems, cancers and mutant offspring - generations away.  I find it interesting that not a single insurance company, manufacturer, government official, government scientist or senior police chief has offered to take full legal responsibility for Tetra, should legal claims be brought forward at a future date.  They could follow the example from manufacturers - like drug companies - who complete thorough research before their product is used, and accept full legal liability.

Special Appendix

 

  • Top scientist casts doubt on Tetra
  • Fire Officers told not to hold Tetra near heads
  • Police complain of illness
  • Police to sue Chief Constable over Tetra
  • Family claims Tetra kills Officer
  • Multiple Motor-Neurone disease cases around Tetra mast
  • Illnesses reported from Police
  • NRPB report showing Tetra is in the microwave band
  • List of relevant powers
  • Police and Fire Chiefs happy with Tetra! [26]

B Trower

Scientific Advisor - Radiation Research Trust /H.E.S.E/ES-UK

Author of the Tetra Report for the Police Federation of England & Wales

Author of the Critical Overview into the death of Officer Dring

Mr Trower's CV can be obtained from the front page of his Address to the Welsh Parliament 3rd October 2006

We are constantly being misled by elements of the mobile phone and electronics industries (who have huge vested interests in the infrastructure) into believing that the pulsed microwaves used in cell phones and Wifi are harmless. Their sole justification for this is that the radiation is too weak to generate significant heat when they are absorbed by living tissues. 

 

However, they are seemingly oblivious to the fact that living cells depend on electricity and electrically charged atoms and molecules (ions) to maintain their healthy functioning. They can therefore be damaged electrically by electromagnetic radiation that is far too weak to generate significant heat.  

 

For example, our cells use the energy from food to pump ions out of mitochondria (the cells’ power stations).  They are then let back in through an ATPase (an enzyme not unlike a molecular water wheel). Each turn of the wheel generates a molecule of ATP, which is the main energy currency of the cell. In effect, an electric current flowing into and out of these tiny structures provides virtually all of our bodily energy. 

 

Some of this ATP is then used to pump ions out of the cell. When they return via special enzymes (called transporters) in the cell membrane, they can carry with them essential nutrients that the cell needs to absorb. So we use electricity to absorb our food too. 

 

Another example is in our nerve and brain cells. They use ATP to pump sodium and potassium ions across their external membranes. Nerve impulses are generated when these ions are suddenly let back again to give sharp spikes of current.

 

Last but not least, the membranes themselves (which are only two molecules thick!) are held together electrically. They consist mostly of negatively charged molecules bound together by positively charged ions (mostly calcium), which act as a kind of cement. 

 

Unfortunately, weak electromagnetic fields gently tease out some of these calcium ions, which weakens the membranes and makes them more inclined to leak. As a result, our bodies become less efficient at generating energy and our nerve and brain cells are more likely to generate false impulses. 

 

False impulses generated in sensory cells can give symptoms of electrosensitivity, whereas those generated in the brain can affect mental function and may also lead to stress headaches. Even people who do not regard themselves as electrosensitive, frequently get headaches and other unpleasant symptoms when exposed for long periods to the radiation from Wifi, cordless phones and mobile phones. 

 

Other reported effects from prolonged exposure to pulsed microwaves include an increase risk of cancer and a loss of fertility. This seems to be associated with observable damage to cellular DNA, probably as a result of the leakage of digestive enzymes from lysosomes (tiny particles in living cells that digest and recycle waste) whose membranes have been damaged by the radiation. 

 

Pulses carried by microwaves are particularly dangerous. This is because their very short wavelength allows the transmission of pulses with extremely rapid rise and fall times, and it is the rate of change of the fields (rather than their total energy) that does most of the biological damage; it catapults vital calcium ions away from cell membranes, which in turn makes them leak. This leakage can explain the great majority of the observed adverse health effects of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation (for more on this, together with references, please visit http://tinyurl.com/55286a ). 

 

It is therefore unwise and arguably dangerous to be exposed for long periods to the radiation from Wifi transmitters, cordless phones and mobile phones (especially their base stations, which run  24/7). They should certainly not be deployed in public places until all the risks have been independently evaluated. Any claims that they are harmless because they do not generate significant heat are completely unwarranted. 

 

Andrew Goldsworthy BSc PhD

Lecturer in Biology (retired)

Imperial College London

Introduction

Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) are smaller versions of the familiar fluorescent strip-lights found in schools, public buildings and many people's kitchens. Like the strip-lights, they are about five times more efficient than tungsten incandescent lamps at turning electrical power into light. They also last many times longer and the saving in energy over their lifetime more than offsets their extra cost. Governments all over the world are either encouraging or coercing us to replace our tungsten lamps with CFLs to save energy and reduce our carbon footprint.

The principle of operation is the same as a fluorescent strip-light. An electric current is driven through a tube containing argon and a small amount of mercury vapour. This generates invisible ultra-violet light that excites a fluorescent coating (the phosphor) on the inside of the tube, which then emits longer-wavelength visible light.